The use of reinforced concrete is a relatively recent invention, usually attributed to Joseph-Louis Lambot in 1848. Joseph Monier, a French gardener, patented a design for reinforced garden tubs in 1867, and later patented reinforced concrete beams and posts for railway and road guardrails.

Early reinforced concrete remained a patented rather than generic product, with different firms developing competing systems. The German company Wayss & Freitag was formed in 1875, with A.G. Wayss publishing a book on reinforced concrete in 1887. Their major competitor in Europe was the firm of Francois Hennebique, set up in 1892. Hennebique completed over 7,000 structures in reinforced concrete within his firm’s first ten years.

A reinforced concrete system was patented in the United States by Thaddeus Hyatt in 1878. The first reinforced concrete building constructed in the United States was the Pacific Coast Borax Company’s refinery in Alameda, California, built in 1893. The major developments of reinforced concrete have taken place since the year 1900; and from the late 20th century, engineers have developed sufficient confidence in a new method of reinforcing concrete, called prestressed concrete, to make routine use of it.


Concrete is reinforced to give it extra tensile strength; without reinforcement, many concrete buildings would not have been possible.

Reinforced concrete can encompass many types of structures and components, including slabs, walls, beams, columns, foundations, frames and more.

Reinforced concrete can be classified as pre cast concrete and cast in-situ concrete. We specialize in the latter. Much of the focus on reinforcing concrete is placed on floor systems. Designing and implementing the most efficient floor system is key to creating optimal building structures. Small changes in the design of a floor system can have significant impact on material costs, construction schedule, ultimate strength, operating costs, occupancy levels and end use of a building.


Formwork comes in three main types:

  • Traditional timber formwork. The formwork is built on site out of timber and shutterboard (Plywood). It is easy to produce but time consuming for larger structures, and the plywood facing has a relatively short lifespan. It is still used for beam sides & as soffit surface to new engineered formwork systems. It is also the most flexible type of formwork, so even where other systems are in use, complicated sections may use it.
  • Engineered Formwork systems. This formwork is built out of prefabricated modules with a metal frame (usually steel) and covered on the application (concrete) side with material having the wanted surface structure (steel, timber, etc.). The two major advantages of formwork systems, compared to traditional timber formwork, are speed of construction (modular systems clip or screw together quickly) and lower life-cycle costs (barring major force, the frame is almost indestructible, while the covering may have to be replaced after a few – or a few dozen – uses, depending on the applications).
  • Slab Formwork. Some of the earliest examples of concrete slabs were built by Roman engineers. Because concrete cannot resist tension or torsional stress, these early structures consisted of arches, vaults and domes. The most notable concrete structure from this period is the Pantheon in Rome. To mold these structure, temporary scaffolding and formwork or falsework was built in the future shape of the structure. These building techniques were not isolated to pouring concrete, but were and are widely used in Masonry. Because of the complexity and the limited production capacity of the building material, concrete’s rise as a favored building material did not occur until the invention of Portland cement and reinforced concrete.


The practice of architecture is a business, in which technical knowledge, management skills, and an understanding of good business practice are as important as creative design. In practice, an architect accepts a commission from a client (an individual, a board of directors, a government agency or a corporation). This commission may involve the preparation of feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a single building, or the design of several buildings, structures and the spaces between them. Increasingly, the architect participates in the development of requirements the client wishes to have met in the building.

Throughout the project, from planning to occupancy, the architect usually acts as the coordinator of a team of specialists (the “design team”). Structural, mechanical, and electrical engineers, as well as other specialists, are generally retained by the client or the architect. The architect must ensure that the work of all these different disciplines is coordinated and fits together in the overall design.


Increasingly, the architect participates in the development of requirements the client wishes to have met in the building. They design projects based on a client requirements, conditions particular to the site, and many other external needs and wishes. Architects must also pay attention to the economics and budget for a particular commission.

Architects deal with various government jurisdictions on local and federal levels, regarding numerous regulations and building codes. The architect may need to comply with local planning and zoning requirements such as required setbacks, height limitations, parking requirements, transparency requirements (windows), land use and other requirements. In many established jurisdictions, design guidelines and historic preservation guidelines must be adhered to.

Architects also prepare technical documents filed for permits (such as development permits and building permits) which require compliance with building, seismic and various other federal and local regulations. The documents (construction drawings and specifications) are also used for pricing and, ultimately, actual construction.

Certain info from WIKIPEDIA.